Procurator of Yerevan prosecutor’s office H.Chakhoyan
According to 12.05.2007 resolution, issued on 13.05.07 under natural light of bright weather in RHMBCRFM, forensic expert of RHMBCRFM, FME of Yerevan A.L.Darbinyam, with 9 year work experience carried out Levon Ashot Gulyan’s dead body’s forensic examination (born on 14.07.1976 address 41, Kond, passport # AN0348065, 11.19.03.07).
Expert’s rights and responsibilities, specified in 85 Act of criminal juridical code, are explained, “I’m warned about amenability for giving obviously false conclusion, refusing or avoiding giving conclusion, which is foreseen by 338 Act of criminal code”
Expert A.L.Darbinyan /signature/
Procurator H.Chakhoyan, dead man’s relative Anton Stepanyan and lawyer Arthur Grigoryan were present at forensic examination.
Examination started on 13.05.07 at 11.40 – 14.20
Examination finished on 30.05.07
Expert’s conclusion is written in 8 pages.
To ask the expert the following questions:
1. When did Levon Gulyan’s death occur and what is the cause of death?
2. What kind of injuries are there on Levon Gulyan’s body, the character of each of them, their location, mechanism, prescription, degree of severity of each of them and relation to death?
3. Could Levon Gulyan’s bodily injuries result from the fall from 7m height, crashing into other obstacles during the fall and then hitting onto the asphalt ground?
4. Are there cranial- cerebral injuries on Levon Gulyan’s body head, which are the mechanisms of their occurrence, are they because of punch, falling down or falling from the height?
5. Is it possible to find out (define) the shape and sizes of the thing which has caused the injury, by the external shape and sizes of the injuries?
6. How long did Levon Gulyan stay alive after receiving the injuries and could he do any active actions after receiving the injuries?
7. What was Levon Gulyan’s position the moment he got each of the injuries?
8. Are there injuries on Levon Gulyan’s body caused by sharp, stabbing, stabbing-cutting or cutting instrument, if yes, then what instrument brought to these injuries, could they be caused during the fall from the height by crashing into sharp, stabbing, stabbing-cutting instrument?
9. Are there any injuries which could be caused by violence committed before the fall?
10. Are there any bodily injuries which are old by their prescription and which are caused some hours or days before this case?
11. Are there any postmortem injuries on the dead body, which might be caused during the fall of the dead body from height?
12. Had Levon Gulyan used alcohol or narcotics before he died?
13. Had Levon Gulyan eaten anything before his death?
14. Define Levon Gulyan’s blood group.
Circumstances of the case:
According to the resolution “On May 12,2007 at 1500 the police of RA raised an alarm to Yerevan prosecutor’s office, informing that the same day at about 1430 a male dead body was found near the building of RA Police Criminal Intelligence Central Management. The examination of the place of the scene showed that the deceased was
Levon Gulyan, born in 1976, living in 23 apartment, Yeghbairutyan Str.14, Yerevan. The external examination of the latter revealed injuries on the head.
In connection with this case the chief of the 1st department of the 2nd board of the Central Management of RA Police Criminal Intelligence Gevorg Tadevosyan and the deputy chief of the same department Araik Mngoyan stated: Levon Ashot Gulyan was invited to the RA Police Criminal Intelligence Central Management on May 12 2007 at 1430 with the connection of not revealed case of Stepan Vardanyan’s murder on May 9, 2007 in Shengavit Region of Yerevan for an operative interview. Being alone for a moment in the office of the chief of the 1st department of the 2nd board of the CMRAPCI, which is on the 2nd floor of the administrative building of the Police Station, he tried to run away through the window but fell down onto the ground on his head and died.
Enclosed to the resolution, the protocol of the external investigation of the dead body in the place of scene (expert A.Dallakyan). The dead body is directed towards the staircase of the administrative building by this head, 2 meters far from the staircase, with his feet towards the other administrative building. The dead body is on the left half with the anterior surface of the body, learnt on the left upper limb; the right upper limb partly folded in the elbow joint is on the right half of the posterior surface of the thorax. The dead body was wearing: blue jeans suit, dark bluish grey jeans trousers, with dark brown belt, black socks, brown shoes, black long – sleeve sweater, with red stripes on the anterior surface, white T-shirt, bloody discharge from the dead body’s mouth and ears, the dead body was turned, tetanus of the deceased is absent in all the muscle groups examined, the clothes were absorbed with red blood resembling liquid. The deceased is equally warm, cadaver’s spots are located on the left side of the body, which disappear and reappear in about 18-20 seconds. Injuries: on the upper and lower lids of the left eye are dark blue-violet colour hemorrhages of about 4,5 x 2,5 cm, eye fissura is closed, swollen lids, the left eye white membrane lateral dorsal surface has bright red colour hemorrhage, from left ear-shell is seen the brain substance. On the left apical lateral surface in the hair-covered area is a tortured trauma with uneven margins of about 7 0,3cm, from which there is blood discharge. There is a similar injury in the area of the left apical-temporal back of the head of about 6 x 0,1cm, the palpation of this area reveals blood accumulation, on the palm surface of the right wrist through the basic phalange projection of the 5th finger there are round 0,5 cm and 0,3 cm blood traces, hemorrhage in the left subclavicular region, blue-violet colour hemorrhage of 3×1,8 cm. in the lateral area of the shoulder on the posterior surface of the chest towards the spinal column and
the right half of the chest along the spinal column and going down till the lower part of the chest there are violet colour irregular form of hemorrhages intermittent at places, their total size reaches 25x15cm no other bodily injuries are revealed by external examination”.
External examination of the dead body:
It was wearing blue jeans suit with metal buttons, blue-grayish jeans trousers with dark brown belt, brown shoes without shoelaces, 3 cm high heels, black socks, long-sleeve black sweater with red stripes on the anterior part, white sleeveless T-shirt, grey pants.
On the dissecting table: a male, right body built, satisfactorily nourished dead body, 176cm length, skin covering – death pallor, equally cold at palpation, visible mucous membrane – cyanotic and dried. Pudrid spots are dark bluish violet, located on the posterior-lateral surfaces of the neck and the chest. When pressing in the lumbar area they fade and restore in about 3-3,2min. Pudrid stiffness is well expressed in all the muscle groups undergone an examination. Hair on the head: dark brown. The face is covered by dried bloody traces. The eyes are closed with lids, corneas not pure, equally enlarged pupils, 0,6cm diameter each. The mouth is closed; the tongue is in the mouth cavity. The teeth on the upper and lower jaws- complete, natural. The mucous membranes of the inside surface of the upper and lower lips-homogeneous pale cyanotic, without injuries. There are bloody dried traces from the external hearing and nasal canals, and from the left cochlea with brain substance mixture. The palpation of the skull-cap bones reveals pathological mobility, the frontal part bones are total. The cylindrical pair halves of the chest are symmetric, pathological mobility is felt by palpation. The abdomen is oval shaped, above the costal surface.
Verdure of the public area is of male type. External sexual organs are normally developed. Testicles are in the testicle sac, no discharge from the urethra. The anus is closed, surrounding skin is clean, no discharge is noted. The passage of the anus is cylindrical, deep, longitudinal curve is kept, neither injuries nor external hemorrhoid nodes are revealed.
Injuries: In the left frontal part of the head there is a 1,9 x 1,5cm scratch, round of which is hemorrhagic by 3 x 2 size of light blue colour. On the posterior upper surface of the left cochlea there is a 2,5 x 2 cm scratch. On the upper surface of the left shoulder there is 3,1 x 2,4 cm scratch round of which on the upper, anterior and posterior surfaces on 12,1 x 7,2 cm space there are a number of red-violet hemorrhages of 0,6 x 0,4 cm to 3
x 0,5 cm sizes. Similar numerous hemorrhages are also on the dorsal surface of the u/3 on the space with 15x 9cm total surface, from 0,5 x 0,3 cm to 2,6 x 0,4cm. On the right half of the lower jaw in the body area there is a 11 x 9,8 cm scratch. On the apical – lateral part of the head there is a 4,8 x 4,5 cm scratch in the central part of which there are 2 wounds of 0,4 x 0,3cm and 0,5 x 0,4cm sizes with uneven and hemorrhagic margins (the hair of the mentioned areas was shaven). On the posterior surface of the chest from the right and from the left along the paravertebral line on the space of 16 x 10cm and 21×15 cm total surface correspondingly are noted numerous scratches from 0,7x 4cm to 3,1 x 2,3 cm sizes. On the anterior surface of the left half of the chest along clavicular line there is a 4x 1,9 cm size red-violet hemorrhage, in the central part of which there is 1,7 x 0,6cm scratch. In the area of the left elbow, on the posterior surface, in the l/3 part of the arm there are scratches with total surface 5,8 x 2,7cm, a bit upper of which there is 3 x 2cm light bluish-violet hemorrhage. On the posterior surface of the right elbow joint a bit towards the inside part there is a 1 x 0,7cm scratch. On the palm surface of the right wrist, along the 5th phalanx projection there is a 0,9 x 0,5cm scratch. On the dorsal surface of the right ankle joint along the hoof projection there is a 1,9 x 1,1cm scratch, a bit above of which there is a 2,1 x 1,5 blue-violet hemorrhage. On the back surface of the right forearm wrist joint there are 2 scratches of 0,6 x 0,4 cm and 0,3 x 0,2cm sizes. From the left the upper and lower lids are hemorrhagic from light bluish to dark blue-violet, in the inner angles of the lids, simultaneously the lids are swollen. In the outside angle area of the left eyeball there is a reddish 0,5 x 0,4 cm hemorrhage. On the back surface of the left forearm-wrist joint there is a light reddish-violet 1,9 x 1,7 hemorrhage, 2 similar hemorrhages are also on the back surface of the left wrist, in the remote tip parts of the 3rd and the 5th phalanxes, correspondingly of 1,4 x 1,3 cm and 1,1 x 1cm sizes, round of which, partially also on the back surface of the 2nd phalanx there are dot-shape hemorrhages of 0,1 x 0,2 cm to 0,2 x 0,3 cm sizes. On the lateral-apical part of the left hemisphere of the head there is a 6 x 1cm size wound with uneven and hemorrhagic margins. On the left apical-lateral surface of the head there is a certain irregular star-shaped 8 x 6 x 4,5 x 0,9 cm wound. In the left frontal – lateral area of the head covered with hair on the 5,5 x 5,2cm space hair-cover is absent, in the mentioned area there is a 5 x 2cm scratch. A bit to the left of the mentioned scratch there is a wound of 1,1 x 0,5cm size with uneven and hemorrhagic margins. On the lateral surface of the left half of the abdomen there are two 1,6 x 1,1cm and 1,2 x 1 cm reddish-violet and light bluish hemorrhages. On the anterior surface of the left knee there are two 0,5 x 0,3cm and 2 x
0,5cm scratches, the latter’s lower margin is 46,5 cm high from the foot. On the anterior surface of the upper/3 of the right shank there is a 1,2 x 0,9 cm white scar with shining surface. All the above mentioned scratches are dark reddish with dried surface and lower than the surrounding not injured skin cover level. Neither shortening deformations, atrophies of the upper and lower limbs, vascular varicosis of the lower limbs, nor any pathological mobility and bone crepitation were revealed.
Inner examination of the dead body: inner surface of the head’s hairy area’s soft tissues is wet, pale pink, in the left frontal apical part 6,7 x 5,7cm, in the posterior- lateral surface of the left back of the head 14 x 10cm spaces are hemorrhagic in a spread-shape and are dark reddish. The temporal muscles are in a whole, on the cuts from the right side are homogenous reddish-brown, from the left-side of focal nature, 2,2 x 1,5 cm and 1,5 x 1,8 cm hemorrhagic dark reddish. The skull-cap bones are broken commimuted fractures: from 10,8cm to 7 x 5cm. At the same time in the temporal – lateral- frontal area is noted an area where the broken commimuted fracture bones are inpushed by 10,7 x 7,5cm sizes and up to 0,4cm deep. From the above mentioned inpushed area numerous fractional lines of stripy nature start, which from the left side spread over the frontal bone, temporal bone, lateral bone and occipital bone, then they partially spread from the right side over the lateral bone, through the coronary sutures continues towards the temporal-frontal area. The mentioned fractional lines spread towards base of the skull: the skull-cap bone thickness on the trepanation : frontal bone is 0,6cm, temporal bones-0,4cm each, occipital bone – 0,8cm. Dura mater from the left side inpushed into the fracture projection torn from 0,4x 0,1cm to 1,2x 0,2cm, the margins of which are uneven and hemorrhagic. The inside surface is smooth, wet, pearl-colour, except for the left half rupture and fracture projection, where it is hemorrhagic, dark reddish. Pia mater is mainly hemorrhagic, intensive dark reddish, in some places it’s transparent. At the same time there are areas pia mater lacking in the tortured areas of the brain substance. The brain is 1460g weight, hemispheres aren’t symmetric, due to inpushed fracture projection in the left temporal-lateral area, where an area of brain substance deepening is noted by 7,9x 5,4cm in size and up to 0,2cm in depth: grooves and curves are expressed, except for the left hemisphere frontal lobe basic 2,8 x 2x 0,2cm, temporal lobe basic-lateral 4,8×3,2×0,4cm surfaces, where the brain substance is partially smashed, it’s reddish-white and the tissue structure has ceased. When palpating the cerebral basilar vessels, the lumens close on elastic, transversal cuts. On the cuts the margins of the white substance of the brain are well expressed; numerous hemorrhages of dot and line character are
noted on the cut surfaces, especially through the temporal frontal lobe projections of the pair hemispheres, which aren’t cleaned the dissecting blade passes through the cut surfaces. Liquid blood exists in the lateral chambers, the walls are smooth. Vascular nodes are in a whole. In the posterior part area of the cerebellum left hemisphere pia mater is hemorrhagic dark reddish, of focal character. On the cuts the cerebellum has a typical free-form structure. No pathological changes of cerebral subcortical nuclei, pons varolii, medulla oblongata are revealed on the cuts, dura mater in the base of the skull, in many places is ruptured through the fracture projections. Dura mater is removed from the base of the skull from two sides, the bones of the skull base in anterior, middle and posterior crania fosses are broken comminutedly, which are the continuation of numerous fracture lines penetrating into the skull base from the skull-cap, which crossing each other in many places, form fragments are away from each other in many places. On the main cut subskin lipid layer thickness is 4,5cm on the breastbone level, 7,1cm on the abdomen. On the cuts the abdominal muscles are homogeneous, reddish-brown. The lipoma like an apron covers the bowel curves which are free in the abdominal cavity. The free edges of the liver and the spleen under the ribs, the ground of the urine-bladder doesn’t go out from under the pubic symphysis. No liquid blood or other content was revealed in the abdominal cavity. The peritoneum is pale grey. The right vault of the diaphragm is on the level of the 4th rib, and the left – on the 5th rib level. The both vaults of the diaphragm, mainly from the right side is hemorrhagic of focal shape, dark reddish. Skin-muscle tissues of the chest anterior-lateral surfaces were stripped. Tissues, muscles on the inside surface through the breastbone projection from the right; from the left parabreastnone lines, through the rib projection are spread hemorrhagic, dark reddish. From the right simultaneously along the parabreastbone line from 2 to 6th ribs are detached from the breastbone on the parasternal level and away the ground of which form the right pleural cavity. Rib cartilages were cut, the lungs fully occupy the pleural cavities, where no commissures were revealed. About 480ml of liquid blood was revealed in the left pleural cavity and 170ml – in the right.
Parietal pleura from the left along paraspinal line on the 2-12th , from the right side along parabreastbone line on the 2-6th , paraspinal line on the 6-12th costal levels are hemorrhagic, dark reddish and damaged in the other parts-transparent. The partition is focally hemorrhagic, dark reddish. The cardiac sac is in a whole, the inner surface is smooth, wet, grey, it contains about 7-8ml transparent liquid. The neck organs are in normal disposition, no injuries and hemorrhages were revealed in the cervical superficial
and deep muscles, as well as in the muscles round the neck. The trachea was cut in the place, little amount of bloody-foamy content in the lumen. The mucous membrane –pale pink. The trachea, thyroid and ring-shape, cartilages , sublingual bones are in a whole. The heart – 1,5×9,5x7cm in size and 340gr weight. The heart externally is mainly covered with thin layer of lipid along the coronary vessels. The lumens of the heart coronary vessels close on the transversal cuts, intima of longitudinal cuts is smooth. There is dark red liquid blood in the heart chambers, insignificant amount of blood coagualnts. Thickness of the right ventricle wall is 0,8cm and of the left one -1,8cm. Papillary muscles and chordal fibers are developed enough. Cuspid and semilunar valves are elastic on palpation. The length of aorta opening diameter in the epivalvular area is 7,3cm, pulmonary aorta is 7,8cm. Bicuspid valve opening length is 9,3cm, tricuspid -11,2cm. On the cuts the heart muscle is reddish-brown. Aorta walls are elastic, soft on palpation, intima is smooth. The lungs are air?, cylindrical, the right one-780gr and the left one 640gr. In the upper parts and on the anterior surfaces there are grayish-pink, on the posterior surfaces and in the foot areas reddish-grey, except for the posterior surface of the left lung, where on the lower lobe there are from 4x3cm to 4,2×4,1cm hemorrhagic areas of dark reddish and 0,2×0,1cm to 0,5×0,2cm lung tissue ruptures. The both are hemorrhagic and dark reddish. On the cuts the lung tissue is mainly reddish-grey, when pressing a reasonable amount of bloody foamy liquid outflows, and from the vessels – dark reddish liquid blood. At the same time through hemorrhage projections the lung tissue is hemorrhagic and dark reddish, bloody-foamy content in the bronchial lumens, the mucous membrane-pale pinkish violet. The tongue is 8,0×4,0x2,0cm, clean, papillary system is expressed, reddish brown on the cuts. The entry to the esophagus is free, so is the lumen. The mucous membrane is grey, longitudinal curving is kept. The entry and exit of the stomach are free, the mucous membrane is pale grey, the stomach contains insignificant amount of mucous content. Corresponding content in the duodenum, large and small intestines, the mucous membrane is grayish. The mucous membrane of the terminal part of the rectum is homogeneous pale bluish-grey, without injuries, vessels dilation, no inner piles nodes are revealed. The liver is 23,0×17,0x12,5×6,0cm, 1550,0gr weight, the shell is smooth, wet, the anterior edge is a bit round on the cuts the tissue excessive blood, yellowish-brown, the hilus area of the liver and hook-form ligament are hemorrhagic, dark reddish. Bile ducts are passable. Pancreas is 18,0x20x1,7cm, 125gr weight, on the cuts of small lobular structure, reddish-yellowish. Adrenal lipid cell is well expressed. The kidneys: the right one is 11,6×6,2×3,5xcm, 180gr weight, the shells are
smooth, are easily removed, stripping the kidneys smooth, small granular surfaces. On the cuts the cortical and nuclear layers are expressed, basins are clean, white-grayish, and passable. Urine tracts are free and passable. Urine bladder is pear-shape and contains 60ml straw-colored urine, the mucous membrane – pale white grayish. The right testicle is 4,2×1,5×1,5cm, the left one-4,5x2x1,7cm on the cuts – milk-coloured, the warp gives triggers. The prostate is 3,8×2,5×1,5cm, on the cuts the glandular structure of the organ is kept. The spleen is 11,0×7,5×3,5cm, 140gr weight, the shell is smooth. On the cuts it is dark cherry coloured, the warp doesn’t give scraping. The lymph nodes are not enlarged, no pathological changes, grayish. The right lobe of the thyroid gland is 3,4×1,6×1,3cm, the left one-3,1×1,7×1,5cm, on the cuts – of lobular structure, homogeneous, reddish-brown. Adrenal are leaf-shape, the right one is 4,0×2,2×0,4cm, the left one 4,2×2,3×0,3cm, on the cuts – nuclear and cortical layers are sufficiently expressed, of lobular structure, the cortical one-yellowish, the nuclear one –brown. From the right along parabreastbone line from 2 to 6th ribs are detached from the breastbone on the rib cartilage level and are away. Along the paravertebral line the 8,9,10,11,12th ribs are broken from the right side, are also detached-away inner laminas, at the same time the 6-7th ribs are dislocated, without the inner laminas and parietal pleura injury. In the left half of the chest, along the paraspinal line from 2 to 12th ribs are broken, detached from the spinal column, away, the inner lamina are injured. On the level of the thoracic part of the 6th intercostals carilage the spinal column is off and slightly removed to the left, the thoracic 12th and the lumbar 1st vertebra bodies are broken asquintly from right to left direction and the column in that part is removed to the left to a certain extent, the lumbar vertebrae are removed to the left at the whole vertebra thickness, damaging the ligamental apparatus of the column and the cord. The surface is 16cm from the thoracic 6th to lumbar 1st vertebrae. Additional cut was done on the chest posterior surface. Along the vertebral spinous processes projection from the 2nd vertebra level till lumbar 5th level, from the both sides the tissues were stripped away from the ribs and on the back surface of the chest superficial trapeze –shape the wide romb-shape large back muscle, chest-lumbar cuspid, as well as deep thigh-costal, thoracic thigh-costal and thoracic long muscle spread hemorrhages of dark reddish colour. At the same time was also revealed fracture of thoracic 12th and lumbar 1st vertebrae with the surrounding soft tissue hemorrhage of dark reddish colour. Additional cut stripped the left shoulder area and dislocation of arm bone head was revealed, the armbone head was moved down and a bit forward tearing the articular bursa. The surrounding tissues, the muscles are hemorrhagic,
dark reddish. An additional cut was done in the both foot areas where no hemorrhages were revealed. For the forensic histological department patterns were takenfrom the dead body’s viscera, brain -2, cerebellum-1, adrenal – 1, heart-1, lung-5, liver-1, kidney-2, spleen-1, pancreas-1, adrenals- 2, skin-1 from the left half of the abdomen. Hairs were taken for forensic biological department. For the forensic chemical investigation liquid blood was taken and urine for defining alcohol existence. For forensic biological department archives liquid blood was taken from the dead body. For forensic chemical investigation was taken blood, urine, patterns from the viscera to define narcotic drug existence.
Results of additional examination:
Forensic chemical examination. Act 444, on 13.05.07 / S.Minasyan/, received on 15.05.07. In the blood and urine taken from Levon Gulyan’s dead body no ethil, methyl, propel, butyl and amil were revealed. Forensic chemical examination Act 233 on 13.05.07 /R.Mnatsakanyan/, received on 23.05.07: in the blood and urine as well as in the patterns of the viscera taken from Levon Gulyan’s dead body blood belongs to O group with anti A and B isohemaglutinines. Forensic histological examination Act 630 (histologist H.Yeranosyan) taken from Levon Gulyan’s dead body: brain –with soft membranes. The soft membrane vessels are quite filled with blood, numerous big focal hemorrhages and blood clots under the membrane, membrane tissue absorbed with blood. In some blood clots is noted one-two leucosis cumulation in membrane tissue, in the hemorrhages erythrocyte contours are clear, one-two leukocytic elements are in the vessel lumen: the cord vessels are quite filled with blood; numerous erythrocyte extravasants and small – and large focal hemorrhages, including linear form of radial direction round the vessels. Slightly expressed leukocytar stoppage is noted in the vessels. Round-vessel and round cell spaces are quite enlarged, which is mainly noted in the cortex.
Heart: The base is significantly edematic, the vessels are on the whole emptied. The aortic vessel walls are unevenly thickened, the lumen – a bit narrowed. In the round vessel spaces and in the base is noted enough expressed connective tissue growth, with small lympho-leukocytar accumulations in the base. Myocardium is fibre-free, cardiomycytes – thinned; undergone diffuse fragmentation, with places of nodus necrosis.
Lungs: The vessels are excessively filled with blood, numerous large focal and at places spread hemorrhages in the lung tissue. Some of the alveolar cavities are filled with eosinophilic liquid, others are quite enlarged with interalveolar wall ruptures and spread
emphysematous foci. Slightly expressed leukocytic arrest is noted in the vessels and moderate lympho-leukocytic inspread – in the lung tissue, in some places in alveolar cavities are revealed macrophagal accumulations, where at places brown pigment is noted. In the lumen of some vessels optically empty roud-shaped bubbles are revealed which if dyed by sudan-III, become bright orange, fat emboli under small magnification 4-6 emboli are revealed. In the hilus region the large vessels are emptied, the tissues are significantly swollen, numerous focal and spread hemorrhages and blood clots with parabroncheal and paravascular spaces absorbed with blood. The bronchial epithelium is desquamated, forms the content of the bronchus lumen, the bronchus lumen is narrowed. Pleura is extended, swollen, at places fiber-free with focal hemorrhages in the thickness.
Liver: The liver’s lobular and trabecular structure is completely disturbed, expressed discomplexation of trabecula is noted, the capillaries are emptied, and slightly expressed leukocytic arrest is noted. The great majority of hepatocytes contain optically empty small and big vacuols peripheric parts of the cells with pushing the nuclei, the nuclei in the centrolobular parts aren’t well differentiated. The portal tracts are a little enlarged and infiltrated with lymphohistocytar elements. The tissue vessels round the falciform ligament of the liver are filled with blood with numerous absorbing hemorrhages in the tissue. Alongside with the ligaments are also present diaphragm tissues: the muscles are edematic, fibre-free, the vessels-emptied, with many focal hemorrhages in the muscles and connective tissue layers.
Skin: “from the left half of the abdomen”: thin corneal layer, epidermis is kept on the whole surface of the skin, main skin and subcutaneous fatty cells – edematic: at places papillary skin proper is fibre-free, the vessels are emptied. In deep reticular skin proper and in subcutaneous fatty 2 cells there are many focal, at places tissue absorbing hemorrhages with dermal appendages and connective tissue layer imbibition with erythrocytes.
Muscles “from chest region”: is presented by transversal striped muscular fibre bundles, surrounding connective and lipid tissues numerous focal hemorrhages are revealed in the tissues, slightly expressed leukocytic infiltration in hemorrhages and surrounding tissues. The erythrocyte contours aren’t distinct in hemorrhages, the surrounding tissues are absorbed with blood, the muscle fibre sarcoplasma is at places homogenous, the nuclei aren’t noted also because of self-dissolution phenomena.
Forensic histological diagnosis: Numerous focal subarachnoidal hemorrhages and blood accumulation, with membranes imbibition erythrocytes, very few leukocytic elements in hemorrhages and membrane, significantly expressed edema of the brain substance and soft membrane, expressed fullness of the brain substance vesseld with blood, numerous erythrocytic extravasates and micro and macro focal hemorrhages, among them of linear type. Skin appendages of the skin proper and subcutaneous lipid cells of the “left half abdomen” skin, fresh focal hemorrhages. Moderately expressed fat emboli of the lung vessels, excessive blood fullness of the lung vessels, numerous macrofocal and spread hemorrhages in the lung tissue and hilus, expressed emphysema of the lung tissue, moderately expressed interstitial pneumonia. Dystrophic changes of the heart muscle, diffuse fragmentation of cardiomyocytes with nodus necrosis destruction places, moderately expressed coronarosclerosis. Expressed lipid dystrophia of the liver hepatocytes, slightly expressed inflammatory infiltrates in the base. Falciform ligament of the liver and blood fullness of the diaphragm tissue vessels, numerous focal absorbing hemorrhages. Expressed edema of the thoracic muscles, numerous focal hemorrhages, with starting inflammatory reaction in hemorrhages and surrounding tissues. Focal hemorrhages of the reticular skin proper and subcutaneous lipid cells of the left half abdomen skin.
Forensic Medical diagnosis:
Combined cerebral open, thoracic, thoracal and lumbar parts of the spinal column, left shoulder closed, blunt injuries. Numerous bruises in the head area. Open inpushed of the skull-cap and comminuted fracture of the basilar bones of the head, closed and moved fractures of the both halves of the thorax, numerous ribs along different anatomical lines, thoracal and lumbar vertebrae of the spinal column, dislocation of the left arm bone. Numerous scratches and hemorrhages of the head, face, chest and left shoulder. Hemorrhage of the inside surface of the hair-covered head soft tissues, left temporal muscle, brain and cerebellum soft membranes, cerebral substance, brain lateral ventricle, anterior and back surface muscles of the thorax, parietal pleura lungs, lung hilus and falciform ligament of the liver, left shoulder muscles. Partial smash of the brain, dura mater, parietal pleura, lung tissue ruptures. Bodily injuries incompatible to life. Scratches and hemorrhages of the upper and lower limbs.
Taking into account Levon Gulyan’s dead body’s forensic medical examination, the data obtained from the protocol of examining the place of the case and the dead body’s external examination and answering the required questions I have made the following conclusion:
1_2. Levon Gulyan’s death results from the bodily injuries incompatible to life, which are due to combined: cerebral open, thoracal and vertebral closed, blunt injuries. It’s based on the data revealed by the examination: bruise-injuries on the head, open, inpushed, comminuted fractures of the skull-cap and basilar bones, the pair halves of the thorax: from the right side along parasternal line separation of 2 to 6th ribs from the sternum body, along the paravertebral line 8,9,10,11,12th , from the left paravertebral line 2 to 12th rib fracture and separation from the spinal column, fracture of the thoracal 6th and lumbar 1st vertebrae, full stop of the brain, fracture of the thoracal 12th and lumbar 1st vertebra spinous processes; spread hemorrhages of the superficial and deep muscles of the thoracic back surface hemorrhages of the upper, posterior and outer surfaces of the left shoulder,up/3 outer surface of the left arm, back surface of the left wrist, dislocation of the left arm bone head, rupture of the articular bursa, and hemorrhages of the surrounding muscles, scratches and hemorrhages of the head, face, chest, left shoulder, upper and lower limbs. Hemorrhages on the inner surface of the head’s hair covered soft tissues, left temporal muscle, brain and cerebellum soft membranes, lateral ventricles of the brain, brain substance, muscles of the chest anterior and interior surfaces, parietal pleura, lungs, lung hilus, septum falciform ligament and hilus of the liver, ruptures of the dura mater parietal pleura and lung tissue. All the above mentioned injuries developed when he was alive, during the fall from the height, as a result of bumping on obstacles and the ground which have symptoms of severe health injuries threatening to life in alive people, which in this case have brought to death and which are impossible to separate from each other. At the same time, during the examination of Levon Gulyan’s dead body hemorrhages in the left half of the abdomen, left elbow, back surface of the left wrist, outer surface of the right shank-foot joint are revealed; as well as scratches on the right elbow, back surface of the palm surface of the wrist, inside surface of the left elbow, outer surface of the right ankle joint, anterior surface of the left knee, which also occurred in alive time under the influence of blunt things, which in alive people have properties of slight damage to health.
3. Taking into account the early deceased changes, revealed during the Levon Gulyan’s dead body forensic examination, the latters are typical of the injuries due to the fall from height (about 7 meters) and the crash into obstacles during the fall and, later, the crash into a blunt, firm surface of a covering, including the asphalt ground, which is based on the injuries that were caused by the fall from the height, revealed during the forensic examination of the dead body, and during the fall crashing into obstacle(s), i.e. spread bodily injuries, numerous fractures of the skeletal bones, spread hemorrhages of the superficial and deep muscles of the pair halves of the thoracal back surface, lung hilus, falciform ligament of the liver and the picture of general commotion of the inner organs.
4. The cerebral open blunt injury revealed during the forensic medical examination of Levon Gulyan’s dead body bruises on the head, open inpushed of the skull-cap and comminuted fractures of the basilar bones, hemorrhages of the head soft tissues, left temporal muscle, dura mater, cerebellum soft membranes, brain substance and lateral ventricles of the brain, as well as partial smash of the brain have resulted from the influence of a blunt thing, and taking into account the examination of the place of the case, the latters are typical of injuries caused by a fall from height by head and left shoulder part onto the asphalt ground.
5. The revealed injuries by their nature and shape have been caused by crashing into blunt, rough and with large surface things. Taking into account the place examination of the case, the the latters are typical of falling down.
6. It is possible that after receiving the injuries for some short time (seconds) Levon Gulyan might have done some actions due to the brain automatism.
7. When receiving cerebral and left shoulder injuries Levon Gulyan was directed with his head’s left half and the left shoulder parts towards the thing causing injury, whereas when receiving injuries of the chest and thoracal and lumbar parts of the spinal column with posterior surface of the thorax he was directed towards injury causing thing.
8. No injuries caused by stabbing,, stabbing-cutting or cutting instruments were revealed by the forensic medical examination of Levon Gulyan’s dead body.
9. The notion “violence” is juridical and the latter’s interpretation is outside of forensic expert’s competence.
10. Besides the above mentioned injuries, no other injuries which might be older by their prescription have been revealed by Levon Gulyan’s dead body’s forensic examination.
11. No postmortem injuries have been revealed by Levon Gulyan’s dead body’s forensic examination.
12. Alcohol isn’t revealed in the blood and urine taken from Levon Gulyan’s dead body. No narcotic drugs are revealed in the blood, urine, and patterns taken from the inner organs of Levon Gulyan’s dead body.
13. Food existence wasn’t revealed in the Levon Gulyan’s dead body’s stomach during the forensic examination.
14. The blood, taken from Levon Gulyan’s dead body, belongs to the first group 37 pictures and schemes on 4 papers are enclosed to the conclusion.
Forensic Expert (FME) A.L.Darbinyan